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A MUltiple Space and Time scale approach for the quAntification of deep saliNe formations for CO2 storaGe

Work package 6 Validation

WP leader


The objective of this Work Package is to validate methods, models and understanding concerning CO2 injection, by carrying out a full—scale deep injection experiment of supercritical CO2 into a deep saline aquifer at the depth of 1600 m. The objective is in particular to quantify the in-situ values of the residual and dissolution trapping, to gain understanding of CO2 spreading and trapping in the presence of geological heterogeneity and in order to achieve this, to develop and test a whole suite of novel field methods and modeling techniques. The ultimate goal is to contribute to an improved MMV (Measurement Monitoring Verification) process for CO2 geological storage sites.

The deep injection experimental site is at Heletz (Israel) and the experiment preparation consists in (i) the re-entry of an abandoned well drilled for oil exploration but turned out dry (did not produce oil), to be instrumented for injection, withdrawal and monitoring and (ii) the drilling of a new well to be instrumented for withdrawaland monitoring. The actual experimental sequence will be started by classical hydraulic and tracer testing, for formation characterization prior to CO2 injection, followed by push-and-pull (single-well) and dipole (two-well) CO2 injection and withdrawal. During the experiment the CO2 spreading and trapping will be monitored by various techniques including hydraulic and tracer methods, geophysical methods and fluid sampling at depth.

See following outcomes: 'Experimet planning at Heletz' and 'Pre-experiment modeling at Heletz')

In addition, a shallow injection experiment with gaseous CO2 will be carried at Maguelone site (France). Maguelone experiment is in particular aimed at demonstrating the use of various MMV technologies at shallow depth. For more details see 'Maguelone experiment')
Work progress (March 2014)

The development of the experimental site at Heletz has undergone major progress in many fields:
  • Completion of the drilling of the injection and monitoring wells;
  • Logging of the wells
  • Casing and cementation of the monitoring well;
  • Stimulation of the wells.
  • Hydrogeological characterization;
  • Design, planning and manufacturing of the injection kit
  • Design, planning and completion of the injection well
  • Design, planning and completion of the monitoring well
  • Various logistic operations on site
  1. Completion of the drilling of the injection and monitoring wells:
    The drilling operations were completed in the winter of 2012 and the end of these operations we perforated the injection well. The monitoring well was left as an open borehole in the lower section (from the depth of 1200 m to the depth of 1640 m). In both wells cores were taken from both the caprock and the target layer and are analyzed by many partners of the consortium (UEDIN, CNRS, UGOE UU and LIAG) and by the University of Stanford.
  2. Upon reaching the target depths, a number of logs were conducted in the wells. These logs were interpreted by partners GSI and CNRS. The reservoir layers with good properties were identified and this information was used for the selection of the perforation intervals.
  3. One of the very early conclusions from the core analysis was that the rock of target reservoir (a poorly cemented sandstone) is unstable and the borehole could not be left open. Accordingly, we proceeded with the procurement of a 7” carbon-steel casing, its installation in the well and the cementation with Portland cement. This work was carried out by Partner Lapidoth. At the end of the cementation a cement bond log was carried out and the well was perforated.
  4. In May 2013 we started the hydrogeological characterization activities. After a short period of testing it was, however, observed that most of the pumping was carried from the wellbore storage, that reservoir is not producing and the well is clogged.
  5. Well Stimulation: Once it was clear that the wells are clogged, efforts were initiated to outline a work-plan for the stimulation. Service companies and experts were contacted and after evaluating the financial capabilities it was decided to re-perforate the injection well and to conduct a series of swab suctions. These activities took place in November 2013. Following the re-perforation of the injection well, we were able to produce water with a fast recovery rate. Injection of water was possible at a rate of ~6 barrels/minute for a pressure of 1250 psi. This is equivalent to an injection rate of ~60 m3/hour for a pressure of 85 bars. These values already indicated signs of good hydraulic properties. The monitoring well was stimulated only by means of swab suctions. In the injection test we were able to sustain a rate of 4 barrels / minute for a pressure of 400 psi or an injection rate of ~35 m3/hour for a pressure of ~7 bar.
  6. After the well stimulation activities the pump test activities were resumed in December 2013. The pump test was carried for more than 10 hours, using two pumping rates (5.5 m3/hr and 2.9 m3/hr). Pressure was recorded by means of a sensor placed above the pump. The pump test was analyzed using the SPT software developed at EWRE and it was found out that the hydraulic properties are far better than the ones assumed during the planning phases of the experiment and even somewhat better than indicated from the laboratory samples. The actual values of the permeability are of ~740 md for the horizontal permeability and ~150 md for the vertical one. The depth of the static water table was much deeper than expected, being 200 m. In the course of March early April we are conducting the FFEC (Flowing fluid electrical conductivity) log, which aims at allowing the characterization of the vertical variability of the hydraulic conductivity.
  7. The injection kit: After receiving a number of proposals (NATEX of Vienna, CO2CRC of Australia and Trimeric of USA) it was decided to select TRIMERIC for the design and the supervision of the manufacturing of the injection kit. Design criteria included, semi-automated injection system, injection rates of up to 4 tons per hour, well head pressure of up to 80 bars and temperature of 35 C. Safety of the system was of key importance as well as controllability of the conditions along the system from the CO2 tank to the wellhead. The manufacturing of the injection kit is completed and after a number functionality tests the kit will be shipped to the site by the end of March 2014.
  8. The instrumentation of the injection well started on January 26th and successfully completed in a week. The testing indicated that all the systems worked properly (pressure and temperature sensors, DTS, packer, wellhead). Installed technologies included: pressure and temperature sensors at two vertical levels within the injection chamber delimited by the bottom plug of the well the packer; optical fire for DTS and for acoustic sensing, a port for air-lift pumping, a port for injection of CO2 to mix with water (in order to saturate the water with CO2), a U-tube for down-hole fluid sampling.
  9. The instrumentation of the monitoring well will be carried out in April 2014. Installed technologies will include: pressure and temperature sensors, optical fiber for DTS and acoustic sensing, a U-tube for fluid sampling, a port for air-lift pumping and a packer for sealing the target layer from the borehole.
  10. The site is being prepared for the experiments, including a generator for power supply, a control room with chemical analysis facilities (Mass spectrometer), gas supply for the heat exchanger. All these operations are being finalized towards the first injection of CO2 in May 2014.
See pictures...

Work progress (April 2011)

Heletz injection site
  • Intensive planning of the experiment and the related instrumentation (see Deliverable D061)
  • Selection of the well to be re-entered. Initially, Heletz 18 was considered the best candidate well for re-entry (area conditions, available information, presence of casing down to 1,200 meters, "dry" well, conforming then to the conditions of injection in a saline layer) and operations we started winter 2011. However, after extensive efforts of several moths on the site during it has turned out that opening of the well is not possible. Therefore, during the last months significant effort has been put in analyzing the data and testing samples from two other similar wells, Heletz14 and Heletz35, one of which will be opened instead. The work is expected to start in May 2011.
  • A permit for CO2 injection has been filed at the IWA (Israel Water Authority)
  • Intensive modeling of the various phases of the experiment has been carried out by UU with support from GII and EWRE.
  • The design of the instrumentation of the injection and motoring wells has been completed and the building of the system is underway.
  • The well opening and drilling and drilling of a new well in its vicinity are now envisaged for early and mid summer 2011, the pre-injection hydraulic testing for autumn 2011, to be followed by injection in late 2011 to early 2012.
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Maguelone experimental site

Design of a new electrical observatory with 1500 m capacity, and construction for the Maguelone site
  • Prior to injection experiments in 2011, a series of preliminary geophysical measurements and experiments have been conducted in 2010 to prepare, test, and calibrate the site for injection experiments and to better characterize site geology.
  • Drilling and completion of 4 new shallow holes: MAG6, MAG8 & MAG9 to a depth of 20 m and MAG5 to a depth of 50 m.
  • With SIMEx, the field objectives of MUSTANG are expanded to test the new electrical instruments designed by imaGeau for deep deployment in combination with a large number of surface and downhole arrays.
  • In parallel to field investigations, a numerical study was carried out to identify the most appropriate array to localize fluid movements in the subsurface. Seismic surface survey was carried out June, 2010. Different seismic methods of acquisition and a new data processing method were tested.
See pictures...

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